The form is created by taking the verb root + diq + possessive suffixes. However, because all the possessive suffixes begin with vowels, the endings are in effect –dığ, -duğ, -diy, -düy. The Q from maq changes to a ğ, as in tanımaq – tanıdığ-, or oxumaq – oxuduğ-. The K from mək changes to y, as in istəmək – istədiy-, or düşmək – düşdüy-.
This form is very common in Azerbaijani. Although it seems very strange to an English speaker, it can be learned with practice. I prefer to start with one sentence that I am likely to use a lot and repeat it for all case endings and find plenty of examples. Since I like to read and to recommend books, I will start with the participle referring to the book I am reading/was reading.
So, oxumaq becomes oxuduğ plus the possessive suffixes.
Example: the book that I am/was reading, you are/were reading, etc. Put the possessive case first, then the altered verb, and finally the noun. Literally it would be: My reading book, your reading book, etc.
Mənim oxuduğum kitab
Sənin oxuduğun kitab
Onun oxuduğu kitab
Bizim oxuduğum kitab
Sizin oxuduğun kitab
Onların oxuduğu kitab
In all of these clauses the book is the nominative or subject. If you know that the book will be receiving the action as an object (accusative case) then just change it to that case ending – kitabı.
Some full sentences:
Oxuduğum kitab pis deyildir. – The book that I am reading is not bad.
Oxuduğum kitab çox maraqlıdır. – The book that I am reading is very interesting.
Oxuduğum kitabı itirdim. – I lost the book that I was reading.
Oxuduğum kitabı tapmamışam. – I cannot find the book that I was reading.
Oxuduğum kitabı görmüsənmi? – Have you seen the book that I was reading?
Oxuduğum kitabı məsləhət görərdim. – I would recommend the book that I am reading.